poles of the earth south pole of the earth

South Pole (Antarctica Ocean)

Poles of the Earth

Geographical poles of the earth are the points of Earth where the axis of rotation intersects its surface.

  • North poles

  • South poles

South Pole:

First of all, the South Pole is also known as the Geographic South Pole. This is one of the two points where Earth’s Axis of rotation intersects its surface. Furthermore, it is on the opposite side of Earth from the North. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth.

Although land at the South Pole is only about a hundred meters above sea level, on the other hand, the ice sheet above it is roughly 2,700 meters (9,000 feet) thick. It is situated on the continent of Antarctica.

the antarctic south pole

Following are its four types:

Geographic South Pole:

The South Pole is also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole. There is one of the two points where Earth’s Axis of rotation intersects its surface. Geographic South pole Americans have occupied the geographic South Pole continuously since November 1956. It is located in Antarctica.

The station stands at an elevation of 2,835 meters (9,306 feet) on Antarctica’s nearly featureless ice sheet, which is about 2,700 meters (9,000 feet) thick at that location. In other words, all directions face north at this pole.

Most importantly, directions point northward along the prime meridian. Along with tight latitude circles, clockwise is east, and anti-clockwise is west, opposite to the North Pole. As long as, the true south geographic pole is located near Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station there are many markers at this site representing the movement of the true geographic pole over the years.

South Magnetic Pole:

EXPLORERS AT THE SOUTH MAGNETIC POLE (BROWN)It is the point on Earth’s Southern Hemisphere where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards.

The Geomagnetic South Pole, a related point, is the south pole of an ideal dipole model of the Earth’s magnetic field that most closely fits the Earth’s actual magnetic field. For historical reasons, the “end” of a freely hanging magnet that points (roughly) north is itself called the “north pole” of the magnet, and the other end, pointing south, is called the magnet’s “south pole”.

Because opposite poles attract, Earth’s south magnetic pole is physically actually a magnetic north pole. Its position moves about 5 km a year. The location of the south magnetic pole in 2020 is 64.07°S, 135.88°E. The distance between the south geographic pole and the south magnetic pole is approximately 2,858 km.

(see also North magnetic pole § Polarity)


South Geomagnetic Pole:

The Geomagnetic poles (dipole poles) are the intersections of the Earth’s surface and the axis of a bar magnet hypothetically placed at the center of the Earth. Therefore, we approximate the geomagnetic field. On the other hand, magnetic poles are the points where the needle becomes vertical.

Above all, this is the point where the axis of this best-fitting tilted dipole intersects the Earth’s surface in the southern hemisphere. Moreover, there is a related point of an ideal dipole model of the Earth’s magnetic field that most closely fits the Earth’s actual magnetic field.

South Pole of Inaccessibility:

The Southern pole of inaccessibility is a point on the Antarctic continentSouthern Pole of Inaccessibility which is most distant from the Southern ocean. Actually, a point of inaccessibility is the one where access to anything is not possible toward any region from any point. It has a variety of coordinated locations. Meanwhile using different criteria, the

Scott Polar Research Institute locates this pole at 85°50′S 65°47′E. It is lying on the Polar Plateau in a vast territory claimed by Australia. Due to its remoteness – it is 878 km away and the nearest city, Cape Town in South Africa, is 5631 km distant. In short, a Soviet expedition led by Yevgeny Tolstikov reached the Pole of Inaccessibility for the first time in 1958.


North pole of the earth

North Pole (Arctic ocean)

North Pole (Arctic ocean)

The poles of the earth are called geographical poles of the earth. These are the points of Earth where the axis of rotation

intersects its surface.

These Geographical poles are:

  • North poles

  • South poles

North Poles:

Arctic ocean

The North pole is also called Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North

Pole. It is the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the axis of rotation

meets its surface. As the name shows, it is the northernmost point on earth. It is

totally opposite to the south pole diametrically. The North Pole is found in the

Arctic Ocean, on constantly shifting pieces of sea ice. The North Pole is not part

of any nation, although Russia placed a titanium flag on the seabed in 2007. The

North Pole is the northernmost point on Earth.

Earth has four North poles:

  • The Geographic North Pole
  • The North Magnetic Pole
  • The Geomagnetic North Pole
  • The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility

No one tried to reach on North pole till the 19th century. However, different attempts were made to reach the North pole in the

late 19th century with the record “Farthest North” being surpassed on numerous occasions. First Airship which reached the

North Pole was named Norge, which overflew the area in 1926Currently, no country owns the North Pole. It sits in

international waters. The closest land is the Canadian territory Nunavut, followed by Greenland (part of the Kingdom of

Denmark). However, Russia, Denmark, and Canada have staked claims to the mountainous Lomonosov Ridge that runs under

the pole.

norge april 1926

Norge Airship 1926


North Pole Arctic Ocean

 The Geographic North Pole:

The geographic North Pole is the northern point of the

Earth’s axis of rotation. The North Pole is found in the

Arctic Ocean, on constantly shifting pieces of sea ice. The

North Pole is not part of any nation, although Russia placed

a titanium flag on the seabed in 2007.



The North Magnetic Pole:

The North Magnetic Pole is a point on the surface of the earth’s

north magnetic pole

Northern Hemisphere at which the earth’s magnetic field points

vertically downward. In a simpler way, if a compass needle is allowed

to rotate in a three-dimension, it will point straight down. Over the

past 150 years, the magnetic North Pole has casually wandered 685

miles across northern Canada. But right now it’s racing 25 miles

a year to the northwest. The data showed that the position of the

north magnetic pole is determined largely by a balance, or tug-of-war,

between two large lobes of negative flux at the boundary between Earth’s

core and mantle under Canada.

The Geomagnetic North Pole:

The geomagnetic north pole, a related point, is the pole of an ideal dipole model of the Earth’s magnetic field that most closely

north geomagnetic pole

fits the Earth’s actual magnetic field. The north magnetic pole moves over time according to

magnetic changes and flux lobe elongation in the Earth’s outer core. Based on the WMM2020

coefficients for 2020, the geomagnetic north pole is at 72.68°W longitude and 80.65°N

latitude, and the geomagnetic south pole is at 107.32°E longitude and 80.65°S latitude. The

axis of the dipole is currently inclined at 9.41° to the Earth’s rotation axis.


The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility:

The Northern Pole of Inaccessibility, sometimes also called Arctic pole. It is located at the Arctic Ocean pack ice at a

distance farthest from any mass land. It is not clear that who first defined this point but it may have been Sir Hub

the northern pole of inaccessibility

ert Wilkins, who wished to traverse the Arctic Ocean by aircraft, in 1927.

But in 2013, a Colorado researcher named Ted Scambos used satellite data to

confirm that Herbert’s calculations had been wrong, as the Arctic coastline was so

imprecisely mapped back then. The real pole of inaccessibility is 133 miles away

from where Herbert planted his flag—and no one’s ever been there.

meteors and meteoroids The atmosphere of the earth

Meteors and Meteoroids


When meteoroids enter Earth’s atmosphere (or that of another planet, like Mars) at high speed and burn up, the fireballs or “shooting stars” are called meteors.



Meteoroids are objects in space that range in size from dust grains to small asteroids. They are thought to be “space rocks.”

the metroids

The atmosphere of the earth

The atmosphere of the Earth

    Layers of the Atmosphere of the Earth

The atmosphere is a layer of gasses that surrounds our planet. There are five basic layers of the atmosphere of the earth. It’s a huge ocean of gases that provides full coverage to our earth in a decent way. These gasses include nitrogen(78%), oxygen(21%), argon(0.9%) and other gasses(0.1%).

different layers of atmosphere of the earth

There are five basic layers surrounding the earth to protect it from harm. These are discussed below:


The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and this is the region in which we live and breathe. Its thickness varies between 8 to 14 km. The thickness depends on your position on the earth’s surface. This layer is thinnest on the south poles(Antarctica) and north poles(Arctic ocean) of earth. Air is the densest in this region and the temperature of the troposphere decreases with an increase in height.

Most clouds appear here, mainly because 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere is found in the troposphere. When someone climbs higher in the troposphere, he feels low air pressure and temperatures. He faces colder temperatures here because as we go up, temperature decreases. The troposphere contains 75% of the atmosphere’s total mass because all the weather conditions occur in it. The lowest most layer of the atmosphere is 5-7 miles above the poles and it does not contain ozone.


the troposphere



It’s the second layer of the atmosphere of the earth as you go upward. It is 35 kilometers thick and 10 kilometers (2 miles or about 33,000 feet) above the ground at middle latitudes. The increase of temperature with altitude is characteristic of the stratosphere. Temperatures increase with altitude within the stratosphere and the top of the stratosphere has a temperature of about 270 K (−3°C or 26.6°F).

The ozone layer lies in the second layer of the atmosphere and it protects our planet from harmful gasses like chlorofluorocarbons. Ozone molecules absorb high-energy ultraviolet (UV) light from the Sun and convert the UV energy into heat. Life, as we know, is not possible without this layer of protection. Jets like to fly in this region but some species of birds fly in the lower levels of the stratosphere too.


the stratosphere



The mesosphere is directly above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere. This layer is 35 kilometers thick and its temperature reaches 130 degrees below zero. It is 22 miles above the ground but the air is thin and one may not be able to breathe. It becomes cold enough to freeze water vapors. These vapors convert into ice clouds. These ice clouds are blue-white and are called noctilucent clouds or polar mesospheric clouds. These clouds are more visible at sunset from the earth’s poles. Most meteors vaporize in the mesosphere. In other words, meteors and comets are destroyed here.

the mesosphere


The thermosphere is the fourth layer and directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. It’s the busy layer because it holds all of the atmosphere’s moisture. “Thermo” means heat, and the temperature in this layer can reach up to 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit. On the other hand, if you hang out in the thermosphere, though, you will be very cold because there aren’t enough gas molecules to transfer the heat to you.

The air in the thermosphere is very thin (the few particles) and the smaller number of particles have little kinetic energy and can not be compared to air closer to the earth.

The thermosphere is 319 miles above the ground and 513 kilometers thick. It is home to International Space Stations. In addition, this is a region where you’ll find low Earth orbit satellites. The thermosphere is important for all life on Earth because it protects it from some of the sun’s most harmful radiation, x-rays, and some of its ultraviolet rays (its shortest wavelengths).

the thermosphere



The exosphere is the uppermost region of the earth as it gradually fades into the vacuum of space. In addition, it separates our outer space because it’s the very edge of our atmosphere. Consequently, it’s directly above the thermopause i-e the layer between thermosphere and exosphere. The bottom of the exosphere is also called exobase. It is about 6200 miles above the ground and 10,000 kilometers thick. Air is extremely thin here. It contains gasses like helium and hydrogen.

atmosphere of the earth


In conclusion, life is not possible without air. Above all air is our atmosphere where lies different layers, different gasses, and adding to this, varying temperatures and pressures.  But the atmosphere does a lot more than provide air for living organisms. The atmosphere also helps to regulate Earth’s temperature.















The atmosphere of the earth

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